Plan a menu

For Hospitality and Catering students here are a few tips on menu planning.

Choose foods with different colours and textures for an appetising choice.

Serve food when it is in season – like fresh salad in summertime.

Dan Gold

Present food attractively using interesting dishes and unusual garnishes and decorations.

Make healthy choices and avoid serving too much fried food or dishes which are high calorie.

unsplash-logokayleigh harrington
What age group is eating your menu? Think about portion sizes and dietary choices.

Taylor Kiser

Functions of nutrients

These are the Hover overs used on the Nutrition Program to help you find the function of nutrients. The Program shows you what nutrients are in your recipes.

You need these details for

WJEC Vocational Award Level 1/2 Hospitality and Catering Unit 2 AC1.1 Describe functions of nutrients in the human body 

Energy – Measured in KJ and Kcal. Needed to keep us alive and active.
Protein – Needed for growth and repair, a source of energy.
Carbohydrates – A source of energy.
Total sugars are all types of sugar in food. A source of energy.
Fat – Good source of energy and supplies essential fatty acids that the body can’t make.
Saturated fat – Too much saturated fat can increase the cholesterol in the blood.
Trans fatty acids – These raise the type of cholesterol in the blood that increases the risk of heart disease.
Starch – Polysaccharide made up of glucose units. Used for energy.
Salt – Essential for cells and control of body fluids. Limit intake to 6g a day.
Sodium – Salt is made from sodium chloride.
Total sugars – All types of sugar in the food.
Fibre – Needed to keep the gut healthy and prevent constipation. Non Starch polysaccharide – needed for healthy digestive system.
NSP Fibre Non Starch polysaccharide – needed for healthy digestive system.
AOAC Fibre – Fibre measurement AOAC includes lignin and resistant starch – higher figure than NSP.
Fat soluble vitamins A and D, E
Vitamin A – Needed for growth, development and eyesight. Retinol and Carotene
Vitamin D – Regulates the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body.
Vitamin E – Helps protect cell membranes by acting as an antioxidant.
Water soluble vitamins -B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin),B3 (niacin),B6 (pyridoxine)
Vitamin C – Needed for healthy skin and tissue, and to aid the absorption of iron. Ascorbic acid
Thiamin – Needed for the release of energy from carbohydrates.(B1)
Riboflavin – Helps release energy from carbohydrates.
Niacin – Needed for the release of energy from carbohydrates.
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine – essential for good health and red blood metabolism.
Folate – Prevents neural tube defects in developing embryos. (B9)
Vitamin B12 – for blood cells and nerve function. (cobalamin),
Vitamin K – Helps protect cell membranes by acting as an antioxidant.
Minerals – calcium, iron, sodium, phosphorus, iodine,
Calcium – Helps build strong bones and teeth.
Iron – Helps make red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body.
Phosphorus – Helps build strong bones and teeth.
Iodine – Helps make the thyroid hormones and keep metabolic rate healthy
Water – All body functions need water.

Function of Nutrients

The effects of cooking on nutrients

Level 1/2 Hospitality and Catering worksheets

You need to cook foods to make them better to eat. Raw potatoes would give you stomach ache!

The main foods affected by heat are fruit and vegetables.

  • 2 vitamins are altered or destroyed by heat – vitamin Bs – thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B7) and cobalamin (B8).
  • and vitamin C.

The longer the fruit and vegetables cook, the more nutrients are lost.

Fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K are reduced with heat.

Proteins change too – think of a boiled egg compared with a raw one.

Cooking methods such as frying and roasting increase the fat and calories in food.

Microwaving is a short method of cooking food so nutrients are retained. 20-30% vitamin C is lost during microwaving.


Steaming vegetables is better than boiling them as the vitamins are not lost in the cooking liquid.

Cook vegetables for as short a time as possible and use the liquid to make sauces.

Use as little water as possible to cook vegetables to reduce loss of vitamin C  and B.

Don’t prepare veg too early before cooking as vitamins are lost.

Chopping and slicing up fruit and vegetables causes loss of nutrients, so cut up these foods just before you need them.

Worksheet cooking nutrients

a) how the fat changes in different cooked potatoes

b) vitamin C losses in spinach

c) vitamin C changes in peas