Sugar in cakes

Sugar used in cooking comes from either sugar cane or sugar beet


Intrinsic sugars are contained within the cell structure of foods such as fruit and vegetables.
Extrinsic sugars are sugars added to a product during preparation such as caster sugar added to make cakes.
The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition recommended that free sugar should be no more than 5%
of daily energy.
Definition of free sugars – those sugars added by manufacturers and cooks plus sugars from
honey, syrups and unsweetened fruit juices.

Functional properties of sugar (sucrose)
• Provides sweetness to products.
• Dissolves and made into a syrup.
• When heated will caramelise and provide golden brown colour to the product.
Combined with yeast will speed the fermentation process.
• Helps aerate a mixture during the creaming method when combined with fat.
• Acts a preservative in jam.
• Keeps the product moist.

“Sugar gives us that delicious texture and crumb, the lovely golden brown colour and it prolongs how long we can store our bakes”
“Sugar also keeps baked goods moist so sugar-free versions may need to be wrapped in cling film before storage to prevent drying out.” Good Food’s Nutritional Therapist Kerry Torrens

Health risks of too much sugar in your diet
• Tooth decay
• Obesity
• Type 2 diabetes.
Ways of lowering the sugar content in dishes
• In most baked recipes you can reduce the sugar content by up to 30% but test the recipe!
• You can use artificial sweeteners which often provide no calories. They are sweeter than
sugar but some lose their sweetness when heated so the cake will collapse.
• If using fruit that has edible skin such as apples, remove the skin as it is has a sharp
flavour and needs extra sugar to make it more edible.
• Use dried fruit in a cake mix. Fruits such as raisins, apricots or figs are high in natural
sugar.

Working characteristics – how the ingredient behaves, its performance or how it is used to its best advantage, when in a recipe cooked on its own, or as an accompaniment.
Functional properties  – the purpose for which the ingredient is being used and can be linked to its: structure, nutritional value, taste, texture, appearance, shelf life.

These are exam board definitions – I think they mean the same!!!

Sugar substitutes  – alternative ingredients Xylitol

Sugar explained

Stevia Agave 

Sugar free baking   – blog with information on sugar

Chemical raising agents – presenting results for NEA 1

For my Chemical raising agents investigations I tested different ones in warm water.

But I also made some scones. You can my recipe on    on this site.

When the scones were baked I took photos.

Presenting results

I used The Nutrition Program to present the results of the tasting. This is how it is done.

Click My Recipes and name one as Scones with different raising agents

Put in the scone recipe in Ingredients.

Go to Star Profile.

Star profile for chemical raising agents

For each Taster put in the name of the raising agents – I’ve chosen plain + baking powder, SR + baking powder, plain + bicarb and tartar, SR flour

Then think of Descriptors for sensory appraisal – your tasting work.

I’ve chosen light, well risen, crumbly, solid

Then tasted the scones and given each a mark out of 5 where 0= not and 5= very.

This is a new function added for NEA 1 test – Click Hide Rating.

Star profile for chemical raising agents

I can now see the Star Profile with each scone tasted.

Then I can write my Evaluations.

Evaluation of raising agents

Then Download as JPG and write some comments

Full marks I hope!!

 

Gluten in flour and bread

For this investigation I tested lots of flours including Pasta Flour called 00.

First I made some gluten balls by mixing 150g flour with water to make a dough then washing out the starch.

Flours make different sized gluten balls which are then baked.

Next I made small loaves of bread from each flour making sure I made each loaf in the same way and the same size.

Then I carried out a fair test to compare the breads and make my evaluations.

Flours used for bread making

All published in Food Investigations NEA 1 3 Tasks

I used The Nutrition Program to present the results of the tasting. This is how it is done.

Click My Recipes and name one as Gluten Bread Test.

Put in the basic bread recipe in Ingredients.

Go to Star Profile.

Star profile for gluten testing

For each Taster put in the name of the flours – Strong, V strong, Pasta 00, Plain

Then think of Descriptors for sensory appraisal – your tasting work.

I’ve chosen firm dough, light texture, firm crust, well risen.

Then tasted the breads and given each a mark out of 5 where 0= not and 5= very.

This is a new function added for NEA 1 test – Click Hide Rating.

I can now see the Star Profile with each bread tasted.

Then I can write my Evaluations.

Then Download as JPG.

Full marks I hope!!

Star profile gluten in bread with Evaluations – full marks!!

Gluten and pasta NEA 1 Investigation

For this investigation I tested lots of flours including Pasta Flour called 00.

First I made some gluten balls by mixing 150g flour with water to make a dough then washing out the starch.

Flours make different sized gluten balls which are then baked.

Next to make the pasta which can be done by mixing the dough – egg is best – then either rolling by hand or using a pasta machine. Make up 3-4 pastas with different flour and taste test them to compare results. I cut the pasta into 1 cm noodles and boiled for 2 minutes. Same test for each – fair testing.
All published in Food Investigations NEA 1 3 Tasks

baked gluten balls

Flours for gluten test

 

NEA 1 pastas

Flours make different sized gluten balls

NEA1 Tasks for Food GCSE

Have a look at my latest book Food Investigations NEA1.

There’s step by step on Starch investigations, Chemical raising agents, Gluten – useful structure for the exams.

Test out baking powder to see how it works

Baked gluten ball from strong flour

 

Book with investigations on starch, gluten, fats and raising agents